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broadband_adoption_and_public_libraries_in_oklahoma


*This research project seeks to gain a deeper understanding of the role of public libraries in supporting broadband adoption in communities across Oklahoma. This page is a launch pad for research in this area.

Sustainable Broadband Adoption

  • Brooks, B., LaRose, R., Ma, W., Tsai, H. S., Bauer, J. M., Wildman, S. S., & Steinfield, C. (2013). Impacts of the broadband telecommunication opportunities program in michigan urban communities. Rochester: Social Science Research Network. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2242573.

This paper reports the results of two surveys which were conducted in urban communities in Michigan served by libraries participating in a $6M BTOP grant project to upgrade their public Internet resources. The surveys assessed perceptions of broadband services and the use of broadband services in public libraries, residences, and other community locations. Two important research questions the study sought to answer included whether or not urban poor residents were adopting and utilizing broadband through either a private connection or a public connection and whether or not the implementation of programs and new computing centers from the ARRA BTOP would increase broadband adoption and utilization. Over three-fifths of those surveyed were aware of the public computing center initiative at their local library. Among those using library computers at the time of the final survey, about a fourth indicated that they had noticed an improvement in library computing facilities. In order to increase broadband use among urban poor, other considerations may need to be adopted in addition to increase outreach and awareness projects about library broadband use.

  • Gangadharan, S. & Byrum G. (2012). Introduction: Defining and measuring meaningful broadband adoption. International Journal of Communications 6(1), 2601-2608.

Gangadaran and Byrum have collected articles that represent how to define and measure meaningful broadband adoption. They recognize that it is by such elements of relevance factors, social support systems, and community-centered processes that accompany the introduction of broadband technologies. By analyzing other articles with case studies regarding meaningful broadband adoption, the authors help other researchers define and measure broadband adoption.

  • Larose, R., De Maagd, K., Chew, H., Tsai, H., Stenfield, C., Wildman, S., & Bauer J. (2012). Measuring sustainable broadband adoption: An innovative approach to understanding broadband adoption and use. International Journal of Communication 6(1), 2576-2600.

For this study, authors used Social Cognitive Theory (SCT) to measure sustainable broadband adoption. In a sample of inner-city residents, the model accounted for 36% of the variance in intentions to adopt broadband technology and services, primarily from the SCT variables of expected outcomes, self-efficacy, and prior use of the Internet. The study found that price sensitivity was unrelated to adoption. The only significant relationship to broadband adoption regarding demographic variables was age. The article also includes recommendations for the design and monitoring of sustainable broadband adoption interventions made based on these findings

  • Trimm, N. (2011). Not Just Literate, but Transliterate: Encouraging Transliteracy Adoption in Library Services. Colorado Libraries,36(1), 1-3.

The article discusses the adoption of transliteracy in library services in Colorado. The article also seeks to understand how transliteracy impacts the understanding of literacy by library staff training and library programming. The article concludes that transliteracy serves as a primary player in bridging the gap in digital media by encouraging library staff and communities to obtain several literacies.

  • Zager, M. (2013). BROADBAND ADOPTION AND YOUR CONSUMER. Rural Telecom, 32(4), 20-23.

The article reports on the national broadband plan in the U.S. that aims to make all American benefit from having Internet connection. The U.S. Federal Communications Commission (FCC) gave grants to pilot programs for the adoption and retention of broadband services by low-income consumers to Toledo Telephone Co., Madison Communications and Waitsfield and Champlain Valley Telecom. This article reports on these pilot programs.

Broadband in Oklahoma

The following articles discuss the state of broadband in Oklahoma. The articles are organized on the following topics: Infrastructure- the physical means to deliver broadband connections in the state, Access- the ability of residents to use a broadband connection, Adoption- The regular use of broadband. Most researchers use home broadband access to determine adoption rates, Anchor- Community anchor institutions as defined by the National Telecommunications and Information Agency.

Infrastructure

  • LaRose, R., Strover, S., Gregg, J. L., & Straubhaar, J. (2011). The impact of rural broadband development: Lessons from a natural field experiment.Government Information Quarterly, 28(1), 91-100.

This study looked at the relation between Community connection grants and broadband development and adoption in four rural counties. A random sampling of residents were mailed a survey assessing adoption, awareness, personal economic development and community satisfaction before and after receiving grants to increase broadband access in the area. Some of the counties also received community education funds to inform the local residents on the availability and benefits of broadband. One of the four counties did not receive full grant fund disbursement so it was used as a control group. The results showed that infrastructure grants, on their own, did not significantly lead to higher ratings in the four measured areas. The grants had greater impact in all areas when coupled with community education funds. The possibility of a public subsidized broadband structure encouraged telecommunications companies to expand into areas that were previously underserved.

A planning document presented in 2011 on the state’s plan to use NTIA funds to expand the “middle wire” infrastructure in the state. The Center for Spatial Analysis used a variety of surveys to verify the information submitted to the NTIA, checking for both false positives and false negatives. The document contains detailed maps and infrastructure plans for the new broadband network. Maps included: State Proposed Fiber backbone, fiber routes by packet with segments.

This is a central repository of maps used by the Oklahoma Broadband Initiative. The maps cover broadband accessibility and infrastructure. Demographic data maps are also included.

This PowerPoint presentation was used as training material on the OneNet network. OneNet is a division of the Oklahoma Regents for Higher Education. This agency replaces the previous ad-hoc information sharing network between Oklahoma schools with a more centralized network centered in Oklahoma City and Tulsa. The material in this document is sparse as is looks like it was intended to supplement a speaker. A majority of it covers the technical aspects of the network but the first few slides gives a good comparison between the old network and the new one.

  • Whitacre, B. E. (2010). Metro, Micro, and Non-Core: A 3-year Portrait of Broadband Supply and Demand in Oklahoma. In 2010 Annual Meeting, February 6-9, 2010, Orlando, Florida (No. 55929). Southern Agricultural Economics Association. http://purl.umn.edu/55929

This paper was presented at an annual conference and build on the 2008 study on factors affecting broadband adoption. Using data from Warren Publishing’s Television and Cable Factbook and the National Exchange Carrier Association’s Tariff#4 dataset, Whitacre uses the same statistical model with the inclusion of the metro, micro, and non-core census classification to examine the gaps in broadband adoption between the areas. The paper reasserts that broadband infrastructure is less of a factor in explaining the lack of broadband adoption than income, education and age. While the paper does note that lack of access in non-metro areas explains some of the lack of non-adoption, he suggest that programs that address education and income are more effective in addressing the digital divide between rural and urban populations.

  • Whitacre, B. E., & Mills, B. F. (2010). A need for speed? Rural Internet connectivity and the no access/dial-up/high-speed decision. Applied Economics, 42(15), 1889-1905. doi:10.1080/00036840701749001

This article uses a branching model to examine the difference in broadband adoption between urban and rural populations. THe data collected from this study uses the same sources (Television and Cable Factbook and NECA Tariif#4) but uses national data for three separate years (2000, 2001, 2003). Some of the conclusions mirror Whitacres previous findings; the availability of broadband structure is not a statistically significant factor in adoption when isolated from other factors. This study showed that externalities such as the relative income and education level of rural populations is more of a factor in adoption than they are in more urban areas. The article suggest that government policies that increase demand for broadband, such as increasing the income and education levels of rural population, is a more efficient means of encouraging adoption than increasing supply by installing more infrastructure in low population density areas.

Access

  • Brown, L. (2010). The market and infrastructure perspective: A missing link in understanding the diffusion of broadband adoption in Oklahoma. The Annals of Regional Science, (1), 235-238.

This commentary addresses Whitacre’s findings and asserts that an approach that puts greater consideration on the supply of broadband services would more accurately portray the state of broadband in Oklahoma. Brown points to three factors that should have been addressed: Propagators (service providers), diffusion agencies (provider outlets) and the diffusion strategy of the first two. The lack of analysis in these areas likely skews the findings of Whitacre.

This OneNet presentation discusses the need for further broadband access in the state. Of particular note is the section on OCAN’s role in providing greater access to underserved citizens. The presentation contains a list of Community Anchor Institutions (p26-28). Exact proposals for connecting the CAIs are discussed within. This includes the integration of the Oklahoma State Regents OneNet Network into the OCAN.

  • Prieger, J. (2013). The Broadband Digital Divide and the Economic Benefits of Mobile Broadband for Rural Areas. Telecommunications Policy 38(6-7). 483–502 DOI: 10.1016/j.telpol.2012.11.003

This article looks at how mobile broadband is utilized in rural areas to increase broadband access. Since the infrastructure cost is prohibitive in low population density areas such as rural areas, mobile broadband serves as a way to plug gaps in the wired broadband infrastructure map. Income and education are still heavily associated with adoption of broadband but mobile broadband does increase access. There is a lot of potential to increase economic development. Ecommerce all but requires broadband availability and broadband would allow for greater job opportunity, through telecommute, and greater access to medical care through

  • Whitacre, B. E. (2010). The market and infrastructure perspective: reply. The Annals of Regional Science, 45(1), 239-243.

Whitacre responds to concerns presented by Brown in regards to his own study of broadband adoption in Oklahoma. Whitacre counters that the first to factors that Brown suggested, propagators (service providers) and diffusion agencies (the providers outlets), are addressed in his model. The model includes a 0/1 input that accounts for the presence of broadband infrastructure in the county. While this might not provide extensive findings on the supply of broadband serves, as a practical matter it adequately addresses the state of broadband supply. Whitacre concedes that diffusion strategy is not included in the analysis and that omission is addressed in the original article. For the most part, the information need to include this in the model is not available to researchers. The relative inelasticity of broadband pricing suggest that this factor would not significantly change the study’s findings.

  • Whitacre, B., Gallardo, R., & Strover, S. (2014). Broadband׳ s contribution to economic growth in rural areas: Moving towards a causal relationship. Telecommunications Policy. 38(7). DOI: 10.1016/j.telpol.2014.05.005

The authors of this study use FCC and National Broadband Map data and compare it to demographic and economic data from the US Census and Bureau of Economic Analysis to study the relationship between economic growth and broadband adoption in rural (areas designated outside of the metro classification by the US Census). They found that the adoption rate, availability and download speeds all had an effect on economic growth. The adoption rate, percentage of people that actually use broadband, had the highest positive impact. Availability had some correlation but it was not always what one would assume. Counties with the highest rate of availability had lower rates of non-farm proprietors than counties with lower rates. Despite the fact that many rural areas with fast download speeds actively seek creative work class people, the percentage of works classified as creative workers is within one percentage point of counties with the control groups. While there are many theories that could explain these results further study into this area is needed. The study does suggest that policy that encourages rural residents to adopt broadband access is the most effective.

Adoption

  • Brown, L. (2010). The market and infrastructure perspective: A missing link in understanding the diffusion of broadband adoption in Oklahoma. The Annals of Regional Science, (1), 235-238.

This commentary addresses Whitacre’s findings and asserts that an approach that puts greater consideration on the supply of broadband services would more accurately portray the state of broadband in Oklahoma. Brown points to three factors that should have been addressed: Propagators (service providers), diffusion agencies (provider outlets) and the diffusion strategy of the first two. The lack of analysis in these areas likely skews the findings of Whitacre.

This is an extensive report by the non-profit think tank the Joint Center for Economic and Political Studies on the use of broadband among the minority community. The report is based on phone interviews conducted on their behalf by the Princeton Survey Research Associates on a random representative sample of 2741 adults in the United States. The findings are primarily presented through bar graphs. While the report focuses on minority groups and adoption there is some information on the rural/non rural divide. There is a negative correlation between adoption and residence in a rural area and age. The study also found a positive correlation between income and education with broadband adoption.

  • LaRose, R., Strover, S., Gregg, J. L., & Straubhaar, J. (2011). The impact of rural broadband development: Lessons from a natural field experiment.Government Information Quarterly, 28(1), 91-100.

This study looked at the relation between Community connection grants and broadband development and adoption in four rural counties. A random sampling of residents were mailed a survey assessing adoption, awareness, personal economic development and community satisfaction before and after receiving grants to increase broadband access in the area. Some of the counties also received community education funds to inform the local residents on the availability and benefits of broadband. One of the four counties did not receive full grant fund disbursement so it was used as a control group. The results showed that infrastructure grants, on their own, did not significantly lead to higher ratings in the four measured areas. The grants had greater impact in all areas when coupled with community education funds. The possibility of a public subsidized broadband structure encouraged telecommunications companies to expand into areas that were previously underserved.

  • Stern, M. (2011). Rural Community Participation, Social Networks, and Broadband Use: Examples from Localized and National Survey Data. Agricultural and Resource Economics Review, (2).

This article discusses the relationship between internet adoption and the development of social capital in a community. The researchers looked at the size of social network and volunteer rates of individuals and compared that to their use of the internet. The data was collected from three separate surveys (Strength of the Internet, World Internet and Making communities Work). The authors found a strong positive correlation between internet adoption and social capital. There is a concern that the slow adoption of new communication technologies in rural areas could have a negative impact on those communities in the future.

  • Verdegem, P. and P. Verhoest. Profiling the non-user: Rethinking policy initiatives stimulating ICT acceptance. Telecommunications Policy, 2009: 642-652. Print. 22 Feb. 2010.

This article focuses on non-adopters in Belgium and the reasons that they have for not using information and communication technology in the home. It is often assumed that lack of access is the primary reason for certain populations to abstain from accessing the internet at home. The authors of this article also identify technological skill and positive attitude toward home internet use as factors in internet adoption. Each of these three factors could represent a cost to that individuals take into account when deciding whether to adopt. A survey was sent to members of eight different groups that are associated with non-adoption and could be easily identified. The members of each group filled out questionnaires on their perceptions of these three areas (access, skills and attitude). The responses were categorized among eight different kinds of non-users. Five of these groups, along two of the three characteristics and three that represented a strong negative perception of one of the three. Follow up interviews reinforced which areas to focus on to convince the individual to adopt. Access was important to some of the groups (civil servants, the unemployed, single mothers and those with technical degrees) but unfavorable attitudes and lack of technology skills also play a part in non-adoption.

  • Whitacre, B., Gallardo, R., & Strover, S. (2014). Broadband׳ s contribution to economic growth in rural areas: Moving towards a causal relationship. Telecommunications Policy. 38(7). DOI: 10.1016/j.telpol.2014.05.005

The authors of this study use FCC and National Broadband Map data and compare it to demographic and economic data from the US Census and Bureau of Economic Analysis to study the relationship between economic growth and broadband adoption in rural (areas designated outside of the metro classification by the US Census). They found that the adoption rate, availability and download speeds all had an effect on economic growth. The adoption rate, percentage of people that actually use broadband, had the highest positive impact. Availability had some correlation but it was not always what one would assume. Counties with the highest rate of availability had lower rates of non-farm proprietors than counties with lower rates. Despite the fact that many rural areas with fast download speeds actively seek creative work class people, the percentage of works classified as creative workers is within one percentage point of counties with the control groups. While there are many theories that could explain these results further study into this area is needed. The study does suggest that policy that encourages rural residents to adopt broadband access is the most effective.

  • Whitacre, B. E. (2010). The market and infrastructure perspective: reply. The Annals of Regional Science, 45(1), 239-243.

Whitacre responds to concerns presented by Brown in regards to his own study of broadband adoption in Oklahoma. Whitacre counters that the first to factors that Brown suggested, propagators (service providers) and diffusion agencies (the providers outlets), are addressed in his model. The model includes a 0/1 input that accounts for the presence of broadband infrastructure in the county. While this might not provide extensive findings on the supply of broadband serves, as a practical matter it adequately addresses the state of broadband supply. Whitacre concedes that diffusion strategy is not included in the analysis and that omission is addressed in the original article. For the most part, the information need to include this in the model is not available to researchers. The relative inelasticity of broadband pricing suggest that this factor would not significantly change the study’s findings.

  • Whitacre, B. E. (2010). Metro, Micro, and Non-Core: A 3-year Portrait of Broadband Supply and Demand in Oklahoma. In 2010 Annual Meeting, February 6-9, 2010, Orlando, Florida (No. 55929). Southern Agricultural Economics Association. http://purl.umn.edu/55929

This paper was presented at an annual conference and build on the 2008 study on factors affecting broadband adoption. Using data from Warren Publishing’s Television and Cable Factbook and the National Exchange Carrier Association’s Tariff#4 dataset, Whitacre uses the same statistical model with the inclusion of the metro, micro, and non-core census classification to examine the gaps in broadband adoption between the areas. The paper reasserts that broadband infrastructure is less of a factor in explaining the lack of broadband adoption than income, education and age. While the paper does note that lack of access in non-metro areas explains some of the lack of non-adoption, he suggest that programs that address education and income are more effective in addressing the digital divide between rural and urban populations.

  • Whitacre, B. E., & Mills, B. F. (2010). A need for speed? Rural Internet connectivity and the no access/dial-up/high-speed decision. Applied Economics, 42(15), 1889-1905. doi:10.1080/00036840701749001

This article uses a branching model to examine the difference in broadband adoption between urban and rural populations. THe data collected from this study uses the same sources (Television and Cable Factbook and NECA Tariif#4) but uses national data for three separate years (2000, 2001, 2003). Some of the conclusions mirror Whitacres previous findings; the availability of broadband structure is not a statistically significant factor in adoption when isolated from other factors. This study showed that externalities such as the relative income and education level of rural populations is more of a factor in adoption than they are in more urban areas. The article suggest that government policies that increase demand for broadband, such as increasing the income and education levels of rural population, is a more efficient means of encouraging adoption than increasing supply by installing more infrastructure in low population density areas.

  • Whitacre, B. (2008). Factors influencing the temporal diffusion of broadband adoption: Evidence from Oklahoma. The Annals of Regional Science, (3), 661-679.

This article reports on a study of the various factors that play into the adoption of broadband on a household level. A statistical formula taking into account household characteristics such as income, education, rural/urban, demographic was applied to broadband adoption rates in Oklahoma from 2003 to 2006. When these factors are isolated, the broadband network in the area is not the most statistically significant factor. The positive correlation between the level of education level of the household and broadband adoption is the most significant finding. The correlation between income levels and broadband adoption is also more significant than infrastructure although this correlation greatly diminishes over time. The author argues that addressing these two factors will have a greater impact on broadband adoption than addressing broadband infrastructure.

Willingness to Pay

[Insert bibliography and resources here]

broadband_adoption_and_public_libraries_in_oklahoma.txt · Last modified: 2016/01/13 18:16 by comminformatics